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Diseases

Taking care of the heart: what you should and what you should not

Taking care of the heart is easy: good nutrition and regular physical activity are two powerful medicines to keep an organ healthy that beats millions of times throughout life, but suffers a lot from cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes , smoking, stress, sedentary lifestyle …

take care of heart

On the occasion of World Heart Day, on September 29, cardiologists recall that the ailments associated with their malfunction, cardiovascular, are the leading cause of death in the world, ahead of cancer and respiratory diseases.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), deaths amount to 17.5 million a year in the world.

The organization itself highlights that 80% of premature heart attacks and strokes are preventable.

The worst thing is that these ailments may not appear until the disease is very advanced.

Chest pain, shortness of breath or a feeling of suffocation or fatigue, loss of consciousness or dizziness, palpitations … indicate that something is wrong.

The good news, they explain from the Spanish Heart Foundation is that  we have tools to take care of the heart and win the battle, starting with ourselves .

Gregorio Varela, professor of Nutrition at CEU-San Pablo University and president of the Spanish Nutrition Foundation,  explained to EFESalud that 70% of the causes for which you can have a cardiovascular problem are known.

Of this 70 percent of known factors, other than genetics, almost 60% correspond to diet and lifestyles.

This means that if a classification is made of known pathologies and factors that can influence their prevention or the opposite, “cardiovascular diseases in that sense are privileged”.

Of these, the influence of dietary factors and lifestyles is better known and therefore it is possible to intervene.

“Compared with other prevalent pathologies such as cancer or neurodegenerative ones, they are light years away in terms of knowing the role that diet and lifestyles play in the development of these pathologies.”

Healthy nutrition

It is one of the pillars of cardiovascular prevention because through what we eat we can improve our cardiovascular health.

And on the contrary: we can also  harm it if we choose unhealthy products , high in saturated fat, sugar or salt. Therefore, it is important to reduce the consumption of sugary drinks and juices, remembering that the most recommended option is water.

You also have to avoid sweets and replace them with fresh fruits. This way, you will be closer to meeting the recommendation of eating five servings of fruit and vegetables a day.

Another tip is to  limit your consumption of processed and packaged foods , as they are often high in salt, sugar, and fat.

And don’t forget to include fish, legumes and nuts in your diet, the latter in small amounts.

take care of heart
PHOTO EFE / Sáshenka Gutiérrez

Around with the fats

Gregorio Varela explains  that until a few years ago they only talked about the total amount of fat that should be ingested, and it was said that 30% of the total calories ingested should not be exceeded.

But when it was possible to quantify and analyze the type of fat in food, that is when it began to talk about saturated fatty acids ,  polyunsaturated and monounsaturated .

“Those who have normally been the bad guys in the movie , in quotes, are saturated fats, and I say they have been because now it is not possible to simplify and say that all saturated fats are bad and let’s banish them.”

“We are learning that some saturated fatty acids in certain foods, such as dairy, can have beneficial properties.”

As a whole, the nutritionist warns, saturated fats would be the most harmful from the point of view of cardiovascular health and should not account for more than 8 or 10% of the total kilocalories we eat each day.

These fats are found in foods of animal origin, red meat or processed meats such as cold cuts.

But it must be remembered that there are saturated fats of vegetable origin, “not so visible” and they are those that are found in foods processed with coconut or palm oil and that have been used more for industrial pastries or ready-to-eat foods .

“Although it is true that a significant effort has been made to reduce as much as possible the incorporation of these saturated fats in industrial processes.”

The  monounsaturated  are, without a doubt, the main food source in the Spanish diet, with olive oil at the fore.

“Taking into account that this food is accompanied by vitamin E, which is an antioxidant, and also the famous polyphenols, olive oil should be present in 20% of the total energy we consume each day.”

And although we have a good proportion, he warns, we did not reach what would be recommended, but we are better than other countries.

Finally fatty acids are polyunsaturated , two families: Omega – 6 and Omega 3.

The first is mostly in seed oils, like sunflower or corn.

Long-chain omega 3s are present in few foods, mainly oily fish: sardines, mackerel, salmon, horse mackerel …

Also in nuts, but to a lesser extent, and in some types of meat.

“Of these we should be taking around 6%, and we take a little more than indicated from the Omega 6 family, but we fall short in Omega 3”.

Physical activity

Along with healthy eating, exercise stands out as the other element in the equation to take care of your heart, have a better general and cardiovascular health in particular.

By engaging in  at least 30 minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity five times a week , or at least 75 minutes of vigorous physical activity spread throughout the week, you will be bringing your heart to life.

That is why it is a good idea to increase your physical activity every day, because everything counts: take the stairs at home instead of taking the elevator and go to work on foot or by bike instead of using the car.

In case you have to isolate yourself due to current circumstances as a preventive measure, you can follow virtual classes with exercises from home. The important thing is to keep moving and active.

In a round table organized by the Spanish Heart Foundation , the  cardiologist Amelia Carro, explains which are some components that are altered with physical inactivity.

Cardiorespiratory component:  the coronary arteries are altered and ischemic heart disease may develop; At the level of the myocardium, it causes heart failure, it also lowers our defense system with which myocarditis may appear, it also causes hypertension, arrhythmias …

Morphological component,  our body composition changes, we become obese, more lipids accumulate, our bone mass is lost: osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, there is also a loss of muscle mass …

According to a 2019 study led by researchers from CIBEROBN and CIBERCV at the Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), in 2016 there were in Spain about 24 million cases of excess weight, that is, 70% of the men and half of women in adulthood.

According to this report, if this trend continues, the figure could reach 27 million people in 2030, affecting 80% of men and 55% of women.

Give up smoking

If you are a smoker, one step that you should not delay is to stop smoking.

Remember that  two years after quitting smoking, the risk of coronary heart disease is substantially reduced , while at 15 years it is similar to that of a non-smoker.

But also, says the aforementioned Foundation, quitting smoking improves your health, your quality of life and also that of those around you.

To make this big step easier for you, there are companies and health centers that offer tobacco cessation programs.

Fight the coronavirus

In this very complicated year, the Spanish Heart Foundation also asks that you use your heart to defeat the coronavirus.

Thus, it is advisable to strictly follow the  contagion prevention measures  maintaining social distance, using a mask and washing your hands frequently is key.

take care of heart
Cardiovascular mortality in Spain. Infographic produced by the Spanish Society of Cardiology and the Spanish Heart Foundation.

Taking care of the heart: managing stress

All cardiologists agree in pointing to stress as another great enemy of the heart.

It is an indirect risk factor because it increases the probability of suffering from diseases such as obesity, diabetes, smoking or a sedentary lifestyle.

And stress has been observed to be a trigger for cardiovascular accidents in people at high risk or who have experienced an event before.

To control stress, it is important to learn to identify it, in addition to following the appropriate psychological strategies that a professional can provide.

And it helps to get regular physical activity and follow good sleep hygiene habits.

Taking care of your heart: detecting that something is wrong

On the occasion of this World Day, the medical team of Melio , an online platform specialized in blood analysis, has published a guide to know what happens when the heart fails.

They state that heart diseases have different forms of manifesting themselves, and the symptoms will depend on what structure of the heart is involved: the blood vessels, the valves, the muscle or the electrical system.

Chest pain

It is the main manifestation in case of myocardial infarction or angina pectoris, and it is characterized by pain similar to a weight or pressure in the sternum area, which is not modified by movements or breathing.

It usually appears suddenly and does not disappear if a heart attack is taking place, while it is usually triggered with effort and subsides with rest in 10-15 minutes in the case of angina.

It is common for the pain to spread to the left arm, but also to the neck, jaw and back.

In the event of a heart attack, the pain is often associated with intense discomfort, cold sweat, and nausea or vomiting.

Dyspnea or a feeling of choking or fatigue

It appears initially with effort, but as the disease progresses it arises with small activities.

This symptom can be present in a large number of heart diseases and usually reflects an advanced stage of the disease.

Palpitations

They consist of the abnormal perception of the heartbeat, which can be accelerated, slowed or even absent.

Depending on the type of arrhythmia and the person’s heart function, only palpitations may be noticed or they may be accompanied by other symptoms.

Loss of consciousness or dizziness

It happens suddenly and without noticing any previous symptoms.

It can reflect serious situations, such as a heart attack, a “malignant” arrhythmia, or an excessive slowing of the heart rate.

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Diseases

Research is life and hope for cancer patients

Scientists, oncologists and associations have reiterated the importance of strengthening cancer research to increase survival rates to the disease and of having stable sources of funding to advance this challenge

CNIO cancer research

View of the National Cancer Research Center, this Wednesday, the eve of World Cancer Research Day, which is celebrated on September 24, in which the global scientific community unites with the aim of avoiding death and suffering of millions of people. EFE / JJ Guillén

But it has been a patient who has highlighted the role that science plays in society: “Research is life; research is our hope ”.

It was pronounced by María Luisa Villafranca , a breast cancer patient and president of the Rosae Association.

The testimonies and demands (more resources; less bureaucracy and a greater capacity to retain and attract talent) have taken place during the different events convened to commemorate World Cancer Research Day , September 24, which have been gathered in different places to some of the most prestigious, leading researchers involved in research against this disease

All virtual. A circumstance also used by scientists to warn about how the health, economic and social crisis caused by the coronavirus is having a very negative impact on cancer research and has slowed down the progress that was being achieved.

Or to warn that the fight against cancer was a global challenge before the pandemic arrived and will continue to be when the international community has managed, thanks to science, to stop the advance of the virus responsible for COVID-19.

It has been research, as scientists have shown today, which has allowed the survival rate to cancer to have passed (after five years of diagnosis) from 30 to 55 percent in the last thirty years.

And it will be science that will cause that cancer survival rate to rise to 70 percent by 2030, a goal of the international scientific community.

Maria Blasco

cancer research
The director of the National Center for Oncological Research (CNIO), María Blasco / EFE / Archive / Toni Galán

“Stopping science is stopping well-being”, has warned the director of the National Cancer Research Center (CNIO) , María Blasco , and has warned that a slowdown in research will make “disappear” hopes of making cancer a more curable disease.

In his opinion, the current crisis caused by the coronavirus has given “very crudely” a lesson on human fragility, and has influenced that after this threat will come others and has placed cancer as one of the “global challenges”.

In the event organized by the CNIO, led by the journalist Cristina Villanueva, Francis Mojica , professor at the Department of Physiology, Genetics and Microbiology at the University of Alicante and father of the genetic editing tool “CRISPR , has intervened with a” keynote speech. ”, Already considered one of the main advances of the last decades in the field of microbiology and medicine.

Mojica has reviewed the main advances that have been achieved in recent years thanks to this tool and the usefulness it has shown in agriculture, livestock and in many fields of medicine, including the fight against cancer.

The microbiologist has referred to the doors that this gene editing tool opens to design new therapies, to discover new drugs or to improve the prevention and diagnosis of the disease.

Barbacid and Tabernero

AECC Barbacid Cancer Research
Image provided by the Spanish Association Against Cancer of the debate in which the researcher, Mariano Barbacid, Head of the Experimental Oncology Group of the National Center for Oncological Research (CNIO) has participated. Credit: AECC.

While at the CNIO they debated the main challenges of cancer research and the necessary involvement of the whole of society to face them, at the headquarters of the Spanish Association Against Cancer ( AECC ), numerous scientists and oncologists detailed the consequences of the slowdown in cancer. research may have for patients.

There, Mariano Barbacid and Josep Tabernero , two of the leading cancer researchers in Spain, have warned of the “worrying” situation in science that, after suffering “brutal” cuts in recent years, continues to suffer from the same problems: lack of resources, bureaucracy and inability to retain talent.

“We had the hope that the creation of the Ministry of Science would serve to reverse the situation but the truth is that absolutely nothing has happened,” said Barbacid.

For his part, Tabernero recalled that a few years ago the financing objective for science was to reach 2 percent of the Gross Domestic Product in 2020, but “we are already in that year and we still allocate 1.2% of the GDP, a figure far from the fixed 2% and much further still from the 3% average for Europe ”.

The director of the Scientific Foundation of the Spanish Association Against Cancer (AECC), Isabel Orbe , recalled that in the last decade Spain has invested some 1,500 million euros in cancer research, a figure that “should be doubled” to live up to the European plan against cancer and reach the target of 70 percent survival.

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Diseases

The change that makes a mostly fatal lung cancer “curable”

A team of Spanish researchers has discovered that the administration of chemo-immunotherapy before operating on lung cancer significantly increases the survival rate of patients; a change that makes tumors “curable” that are mostly “lethal” today

exercise

X-ray of some lungs. EPA / EFE

The journal The Lancet Oncology has published the results of the “NADIM” study carried out by researchers from the Spanish Group of Lung Cancer (GECP), results that open the door to a change in the therapeutic approach of lung tumors when it is found in intermediate stages.

The research, which according to its authors is pioneering worldwide, yields survival results that are double those obtained so far with the traditional treatment to treat this type of tumors (chemotherapy after surgery).

The study has focused on patients with lung cancer in intermediate stages – those who can be operated on, but in which the tumor has already spread to surrounding lymph nodes.

“We are talking about making potential and mostly lethal tumors curable”, said Dr. Mariano Provencio, president of the Group and principal investigator, in a press release released last Friday.

lung cancer
The president of the Spanish Lung Cancer Group, Mariano Provencio, covers his face to demand more involvement against this tumor.

The study has yielded very hopeful data for this type of patient: 89.9 percent of the patients included in the study survived after two years and 77 percent had no progression of the disease in this period.

Furthermore, 63.4% of the included patients had a complete pathological tumor response when surgery was performed (tumor absence).

“These rates represent almost twice the survival rate of that registered so far with the traditional approach. This is important because only 30 percent of the patients survived after three years ”, stated the president of the GECP.

The “NADIM” study has also evaluated the safety of this treatment regimen, and researchers have concluded that it is safe.

“The side effects of the treatment only occurred in 30 percent of the patients and did not interfere with subsequent surgery”, explained Provencio.

The researchers further consider that this strategy provides protection to the patient since the presence of the complete tumor mass at the start of immunotherapy allows the induction of a stronger adaptive antitumor response and the early development of immune memory that can provide long-term protection. to the patient.

The CECP has recalled that lung cancer, despite being diagnosed in locally advanced stages, is a “terminal” disease, with little prospect of long-term survival.

Mariano Provencio has underlined that “research until now had focused on advanced stages of the tumor, so in the last 20 years there had been no progress”.

“The NADIM study is the first research worldwide that has analyzed the benefits (viability, safety, efficacy and survival) of administering chemo-innumotherapy before surgery to patients with lung cancer in initial or locally advanced stages”, Provencio highlighted .

And he recalled that until now the efficacy of this treatment had not been tested and the survival and cure prognoses in this group of patients (20% of all cases) “were very poor.”

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Diseases

What are corns or calluses and why do they appear?

This condition is often seen in athletes and in patients who are exposed to uneven frictional force from shoes or gait problems. Older adults, patients with diabetes, and amputees are included here.

What are corns or calluses?

Corns or calluses are common, uncomfortable, and thickened skin lesions. They result from repeated mechanical trauma due to friction or pressure forces that occur on the skin.

People with dark pigmented skin are more likely to develop corns. In addition, they are located more closely on the feet, in the regions of the back of the fingers, the last interdigital space and the soles.

What are the symptoms and signs?

This type of hyperkeratosis usually presents as a dry, hard, rough, flesh-colored papule with a whitish center. This central region is called the nucleus . In turn, they are preferably located on a bony prominence.

They are painful when walking and standing , but asymptomatic to the touch . On the other hand, as keratin growth and thickening increases, corns and calluses can cause severe pain.

Corns are sometimes difficult to distinguish from plantar warts. However, if the doctor exerts finger pressure perpendicular to the callus, the callus will come into contact with the bony prominence and the patient will feel pain. This maneuver is usually not painful in the case of warts.

Woman with inappropriate footwear and sore feet.
The use of the wrong footwear is a predisposing factor for the formation of calluses.

Why are corns generated?

The ill -fitting shoes , abnormal foot mechanics and high levels of activity produce pressure and friction that causes corns and calluses. This is why athletes are more prone.

Therefore, the repeated friction and pressure of the skin that covers the bony prominences leads to a thickening that will lead to the callus or callus. The increase in thickness is a protective body reaction that produces an excess of the horny epithelial layer to prevent ulceration of the skin.

This explains the preferential location next to the condyles of the metatarsals and phalanges, as well as the appearance of calluses in patients with a foot deformity. It is the lower extremities that are most affected by the pressure they bear.

Read also:  How to remove dead skin?

Types and classification of corns and calluses

There are two main variants of this type of condition . However, a third is often mentioned that manifests as multiple painless plugs within the plantar calluses, in areas of the soles of the feet that do not support pressure.

Heloma hard

The hard heloma is the most common type of calluses. It is most frequently located on the lateral and dorsal aspect of the fifth toe , as well as on the dorsal aspect of the interphalangeal joints of the lesser fingers.

Soft heloma

The heloma soft is a painful hyperkeratotic lesion that is observed in most cases in the interdigital spaces , especially in the fourth. This location often leads to maceration of the same and, sometimes, to the appearance of a bacterial or fungal infection.

What is the treatment of corns?

The injuries usually disappear when the causative mechanical forces are removed . Treatment is aimed at reducing pain and discomfort. Despite this, corns tend to recur .

Topical treatments for corns or calluses

Topical keratolytic medications, including salicylic acid, may be applied to corns. In this indication, 20% and 50% urea, silver nitrate and hydrocolloid dressings are also used.

These techniques are more effective for some injuries. In turn, topical keratolytic agents can also facilitate lesion removal by softening calluses. Physical removal of corns has been shown to improve quality of life and pain outcomes.

Ablative laser

Lasers can be used to treat corns, rather than exfoliating them with a scalpel. However, recurrence of lesions is observed in some patients , especially if the triggers are maintained.

Conservative treatment

Any mechanical problem and deformity should be treated with proper conservative treatment. That is, it is about using appropriate footwear and soft cushions that reduce friction and improve comfort.

Surgical

This surgical approach is aimed at removing the underlying cause of calluses, such as bony prominences. It is generally indicated in the event of failure of other conservative treatment modalities , according to American Family Physician publications .

Homemade tips to remove corns

It can be helpful to soak the corns in warm water for 20 minutes . After this, gently rub the callus with your finger or a pumice stone.
Plantar callus.
Treatments range from conservative approach to ablative surgery.

How to prevent the appearance of corns and calluses?

Management actually begins with prevention. Therefore, poorly fitting shoes and mechanical trauma to the affected area should be avoided. This is especially true for athletes with intense training.

Corns are not caused by viruses and are not contagious . In addition, nail trimming should be indicated to avoid any pressure or repeated trauma that could lead to the development of injuries.

The risk of corns and calluses

Although corns and calluses are a chronic and recurring problem, most of them gradually disappear when repeated friction or pressure is removed . However, if the corns do not go away or if they started to cause severe pain, the patient should be examined by a dermatologist or podiatrist.

People with diabetes or another condition that causes poor blood flow to the feet is at increased risk of complications. These patients need a strict control with revision of their extremities to detect in time the problem that can lead to ulcers.

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Diseases

Main diseases transmitted by mosquitoes

Many infections caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites are spread by insects. One of the biggest vectors around the world is mosquitoes. Next, we will tell you about the main diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and how they can be treated.

At present, insect-borne diseases are a serious public health problem in various countries. According to data from the World Health Organization ( WHO ), each year they kill 700,000 people around the world . Despite efforts to control them, various environmental and social factors complicate the task.

Mosquitoes as vectors of disease

All insects capable of transmitting diseases are known as vectors . In this way, certain arthropods such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines and ticks stand out. All of them transport the microorganisms that cause infections from one host to another.

The transmission of pathogens can be both biological and mechanical, that is, related or not to the insect’s blood intake. In this sense, when the insect is biological it will be necessary for the virus, parasite or bacterium to complete its life cycle.

Of all the existing vectors, mosquitoes are the best known. This perhaps is due to the large number of diseases they can carry. All of them are transmitted biologically, that is, the mosquito must ingest blood from a sick patient to become a vector .

There are 3 different genera of mosquitoes; They all have different characteristics and are capable of transmitting specific diseases. The 3 known genera are Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex .

Mosquito repellent.
The use of repellants is indicated as a preventive measure to stop the vectors.

Read also: 3 homemade repellants to protect the skin from mosquito bites

Malaria

One of the main mosquito-borne diseases is malaria or malaria. This word refers to bad air and is known in this way because it was believed that it was transmitted through the environment.

This infection is produced by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, although the species of the parasite can change depending on the geographical location. They are transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles , so it is very common to observe the disease in countries with tropical climates.

The life cycle of these parasites is complex. The main complication is anemia, since they infect the host’s red blood cells, multiply within them and, after 48 or 72 hours, break them.

Symptoms

The clinical manifestations appear between 10 and 15 days after the mosquito bite . The main symptom in people with malaria is fever over 38 ° C interspersed with periods when the temperature will be normal.

In addition, there may also be jaundice (yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes), chills and profuse sweating, muscle aches, nausea and vomiting, general weakness, and seizures in severe cases.

Treatment

The treatment of infection vary depending on the species that is causing it . Taking into account that the most frequent etiological agents are P. vivax and P. falciparum,  treatment will be based on the use of chloroquine in combination with primaquine .

When resistance to chloroquine is suspected, it can be combined with some artemisinin derivatives , with antibiotics (doxycycline or clindamycin) or with mefloquine and artesunate. Also, intravenous fluids may be needed on many occasions.

Dengue

Another of the most common mosquito-borne diseases is dengue. This infection is produced by the dengue virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family It has 4 different serotypes called DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4.

This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes , largely by the species Aedes aegypti. This is a characteristic disease of tropical and subtropical countries. However, according to WHO studies , cases have occurred around the world and up to 390 million infections are accounted for per year.

Symptoms

The incubation period of the virus within the human body can vary between 4 and 10 days after the bite. The main symptom presented is fever of more than 40 ° C, continuous and without hourly predominance . Sometimes there is also a body rash and swollen lymph nodes.

As if that were not enough, many patients have the following symptoms :

  • Pain in the muscles, bones and joints.
  • Weakness in the body
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Nausea and vomiting

Treatment

Currently there is no specific treatment for dengue, so the therapeutic option will be aimed at treating the symptoms . The main medicine used is acetaminophen or paracetamol to reduce fever, in addition to adequate fluid replacement.

Symptoms, and the infection itself, usually resolve within 2 to 7 days. However, if there are any complications, you should be kept under constant medical supervision.

Yellow fever

This is one of the most dangerous and deadly mosquito-borne diseases out there. It is quite common in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by the yellow fever virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family .

Yellow fever is transmitted, to a large extent, by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes , specifically by the species Aedes aegypti. Although those belonging to the genus Haemogogus are also capable of transmitting it.

This infection owes its name to the jaundice that some patients present, so their skin may turn yellow. 15% of those infected develop serious complications and, on average , half of them die within 7 to 10 days.

Symptoms

Symptoms of the disease can appear 3 to 6 days after the mosquito bite. It is convenient to divide it into two phases : an acute and a toxic one. Each one will have a different symptomatology.

  • Acute phase : This is the initial period of the disease and patients present with fever, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. However, the signs disappear between 3 and 4 days.
  • Toxic phase : A small portion of patients may enter the toxic phase after the symptoms of the acute phase have subsided. At this point, there is a systemic compromise, leading to liver failure , kidney failure, and heart damage.

Treatment

Unfortunately, there is no specific antiviral treatment for yellow fever. However, prompt care reduces the risk of complications . In this way, it is necessary to attack all the symptoms early, so the fever must be reduced and adequate fluid replacement must be had.

There is an immunization for prevention. In this sense, a single dose of the vaccine is sufficient to confer immunity and protection for life.

Discover: Vaccination Calendar 2020

Zika

Zika virus test.
Zika has had recent outbreaks that underscored its importance in current epidemiology.

Zika is a viral infection discovered in the 1940s. It is caused by a flavivirus and transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes . This disease is common in countries with tropical climates in Latin America, Africa and Asia.

At present, outbreaks of this disease have been registered in more than 83 countries around the world. Although it is not usually fatal, it can cause spontaneous abortions in pregnant women and serious birth defects such as microcephaly , joint and eye damage, brain damage and reduced body movements.

Symptoms

The symptomatology of this disease is very mild . In fact, most patients are asymptomatic . In those cases in which the clinical presentation is evident, the symptoms usually appear between 3 and 14 days after the mosquito bite with a mild fever, skin rashes, joint and muscle pain, general weakness and red eyes.

On the other hand, few cases have been reported where the Zika virus is related to damage to peripheral nerves and the appearance of Guillain-Barré syndrome .

Treatment

Because the symptoms are not serious, no specific treatment is necessary . Just lowering the fever and reducing muscle aches will be enough. In addition, the symptoms resolve spontaneously after a week.

Chikungunya

This is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes However, other species of the same genus can also carry the virus.

The word chikungunya comes from Africa and its literal translation is ‘doubled from pain’. This is due to the severe muscle aches it causes . Before 2013, the pathology was only found in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Indian Ocean. However, at the end of that year, several outbreaks were reported in Latin American and Caribbean countries.

Symptoms

The symptoms of chikungunya do not usually vary much from those caused by other mosquito-borne diseases. In this sense, between 3 and 7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito, patients may present the following symptoms :

  • High fever: higher than 39 ° C.
  • Pain: severe muscle and joint with  headache .
  • Inflammation: in the joints and lymph nodes.
  • Rashes.

Treatment

As with Zika, this disease does not have a specific treatment and symptoms usually resolve within a week . However, it is recommended to drink plenty of fluids, rest, and reduce fever with various antipyretics such as paracetamol.

Fumigation in houses.
Fumigation of homes and work environments is imposed in areas with high circulation of these diseases

How to prevent mosquito-borne diseases?

If you are in countries with tropical climates where these diseases are endemic, the most advisable thing is the constant use of repellent . In addition, using mosquito nets at night will prevent them from biting you while you sleep. In the specific case of yellow fever, you must have up-to-date vaccinations.

On the other hand, the best way to prevent this type of infection is to eradicate the vector’s habitat . For this it is necessary to eliminate all types of stagnant water in the home, since this is its means of reproduction. Another helpful tip is constant spraying of the home and work area.